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Rather, it refers to focal areas of fat destruction, typically resulting from release of activated pancreatic lipases into the substance of the pancreas and the peritoneal cavity.
This occurs in the calamitous abdominal emergency known as acute pancreatitis Chapter In this disorder pancreatic enzymes leak out of acinar cells and liquefy the membranes of fat cells in the peritoneum.
The released lipases split the triglyceride esters contained within fat cells.
The fatty acids, so derived, combine with calcium to produce grossly visible chalky-white areas fat saponification , which enable the surgeon and the pathologist to identify the lesions Fig. On histologic examination the necrosis takes the form of foci of shadowy outlines of necrotic fat cells, with basophilic calcium deposits, surrounded by an inflammatory reaction.
Fibrinoid necrosis is a special form of necrosis usually seen in immune reactions involving blood vessels. This pattern of necrosis typically occurs when complexes of antigens and antibodies are deposited in the walls of arteries. The immunologically mediated vasculitis syndromes in which this type of necrosis is seen are described in Chapter 6.
Morphologic and Biochemical Changes in Apoptosis Morphology. The following morphologic features, some best seen with the electron microscope, characterize cells undergoing apoptosis Fig. Cell shrinkage. The cell is smaller in size; the cytoplasm is dense Fig.
Recall that in other forms of cell injury, an early feature is cell swelling, not shrinkage. Chromatin condensation. This is the most characteristic feature of apoptosis. The chromatin aggregates peripherally, under the nuclear membrane, into dense masses of various shapes and sizes Fig.
The nucleus itself may break up, producing two or more fragments.
Formation of cytoplasmic blebs and apoptotic bodies. The apoptotic cell first shows extensive surface blebbing, then undergoes fragmentation into membrane-bound apoptotic bodies composed of cytoplasm and tightly packed organelles, with or without nuclear fragments Fig.
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or cell bodies, usually by macrophages. The apoptotic bodies are rapidly ingested by phagocytes and degraded by the phagocyte's lysosomal enzymes. Plasma membranes are thought to remain intact during apoptosis, until the last stages, when they become permeable to normally retained solutes. This classical description is accurate with respect to apoptosis during physiologic conditions such as embryogenesis and deletion of immune cells.
However, forms of cell death with features of necrosis as well as of apoptosis are not uncommon after many injurious stimuli.
On histologic examination, in tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the apoptotic cell appears as a round or oval mass of intensely eosinophilic cytoplasm with fragments of dense nuclear chromatin Fig.
Because the cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies are rapid and the pieces are quickly phagocytosed, considerable apoptosis may occur in tissues before it becomes apparent in histologic sections. In addition, apoptosis—in contrast to necrosis—does not elicit inflammation, making it more difficult to detect histologically. A, Apoptosis of an epidermal cell in an immune reaction. The cell is reduced in size and contains brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and a condensed nucleus.
B, This electron micrograph of cultured cells undergoing apoptosis shows some nuclei with peripheral crescents of compacted chromatin, and others that are uniformly dense or fragmented.
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C, These images of cultured cells undergoing apoptosis show blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies left panel, phase contrast micrograph , a stain for DNA showing nuclear fragmentation middle panel , and activation of caspase- 3 right panel, immunofluorescence stain with an antibody specific for the active form of caspase-3, revealed as red color. Definition and incidence of apoptosis: The Molecular Basis of Cell Death. A, Schematic diagram of the possible mechanisms leading to accumulation of triglycerides in fatty liver.
Defects in any of the steps of uptake, catabolism, or secretion can result in lipid accumulation. B, High-power detail of fatty change of the liver. In most cells the well-preserved nucleus is squeezed into the displaced rim of cytoplasm about the fat vacuole.
B, Courtesy of Dr. Iron pigment appears as a coarse, golden, granular pigment lying within the cell's cytoplasm Fig. It can be visualized in tissues by the Prussian blue histochemical reaction, in which colorless potassium ferrocyanide is converted by iron to blue-black ferric ferrocyanide Fig. When the underlying cause is the localized breakdown of red cells, the hemosiderin is found initially in the phagocytes in the area. In systemic hemosiderosis it is found at first in the mononuclear phagocytes of the liver, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes and in scattered macrophages throughout other organs such as the skin, pancreas, and kidneys.
With progressive accumulation, parenchymal cells throughout the body principally in the liver, pancreas, heart, and endocrine organs become pigmented. In most instances of systemic hemosiderosis the pigment does not damage the parenchymal cells or impair organ function. Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server.
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Have them report their findings back to the class. They can then either present their findings to the class, or turn it in as a paper. The focus should not be about discrimination or lawsuits against the company, but rather on how a diverse organization is more creative and can generate quality solutions to problems. Click on the above link to see what types of training sessions they offer.
Do you think these types of training would work in your organization? If not, why? Are there other topics that should be addressed? Write a two-page paper on this, and report your findings to the class. To whom does diversity matter? Bottom line, why does Thiederman say diversity counts?
What are some of the programs that Pfizer has implemented to address diversity? How Do My Ethics Rate? Overview Ethics has become a greater topic of discussion since the s.
Whether we have a more ethical business climate and businesses is another issue. Whatever the case, people within organizations and those who sit in judgment on organizations in our society are concerned with the moral and ethical state of the union. This makes sense when we open a newspaper or see on the nightly news that Ford and Firestone knew about the problems with the design of the Explorer and with the Firestone tires years prior to Copyright c Pearson Education, Inc.
The reason given by both was that the federal laws did not require international problems of this sort to be reported. It was in Europe that there had been complaints about the Explorer and its tires, and yet the management of both firms decided to keep mum.
What does this say about the ethics of our society? One company is American and the other Japanese. What does it say about both companies? They fell out with each other when the problems came to light accusing each other of the problems, rather than cooperating to solve them.
The Ford-Firestone case is just one in a long line of ethical and socially irresponsible actions of companies. But it does raise the issue. What is ethics and how do our companies define the term? And do we really care?
Teaching Notes There have been many cases of ethical problems in companies. Then each group can act out the internal decision making for the company playing each of the parts of the decision makers.
Then the class can discuss why good men and women can make bad decisions. Divide the class in any number of ways that groups differ gender, age, work experience , and have them watch a video case on ethics. These are available in most media centers.
( Medium) Robbins Basic Pathology ( 9th Edition) 2
Use that as a starting point to discuss specific ethical issues. Compare and contrast the results. Make sure you set aside enough time for all students to participate. Have a class discussion on what they think ethics means in the 21st century. They will have a better perspective on how things used to be. Also, bring in the current examples of ethical failings, and compare them to previous events. Please browse around the site and be prepared to discuss the concepts and realities of ethical thinking and behavior in class.
Please browse around the site. Then write a three- to four-page analysis comparing the European approach to ethics with the American approach. Commitment was clearly an all-encompassing reality in the days before portable pensions and the acceptance of moving from job to job. They were and are much more formal than the subsequent generations. A veteran wants respect, and with it will be a loyal, hardworking employee.
He will also wear a suit and tie with comfort.
The boomers also stayed with organizations, but were born into very changing times — The world had been at war, and was on the brink of an unpopular war Vietnam and a civil rights struggle of wide proportion. Bill Clinton and Bill Gates are both boomers.
Boomers are usually team oriented, customer oriented, love working long hours, love meetings, and collective decision making. They live to work as opposed to members of Generation X who work to live. Identifiable generational traits will in many ways shape your commitment to organizations. You might want to discuss with the students how they feel about commitment to an organization in an age when job-hopping is quite acceptable, and even desirable.
Companies were like revolving doors as knowledge, not seniority, became power. You can ask students what their career plans are, and if they would feel comfortable changing Copyright c Pearson Education, Inc. The instrument relates back to other instruments that asked what type of structure are you most comfortable with and other issues of choosing stability or change.
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Then ask them if they have ideas on where they would like to work. Give them an assignment to research the organization, and see if they can ascertain the level of commitment required by the organization.
You might discuss this with them first. Give them a couple of weeks to research organizations, and have them report back to the class. Individuals just have different priorities, and this is not a bad thing. It may be a bad thing if they want to choose an organization that requires high commitment or long hours, and that is not what they want. What does the concept of commitment mean in ? What did it mean in or or ? What will it mean in ? The students can either research these periods or come to class ready to discuss the changing concept of organizational commitment, or you can provide the basics and ask them to discuss the implications for managing organizations.
This can either be an outside research project, or a group project to be presented in class. For example, in the early s, the labor movement was just gaining momentum, and in this decade, commitment has dropped due to downsizing and technology. Here is a fascinating page on personality that relates to the concept of commitment. Please read the information here and then analyze it related to commitment in a two- to three-page piece.
Browse through this file, as it is a good example of how knowledge is created in the field of management. You might use your search engine to find other related studies on this topic. Discuss the three generational groups. Frame the discussion around these questions. What do you believe each group values in life?
What do you believe each group wants from their job? What do you believe each group expects from their supervisor? Identify two characteristics that best describe each group. Step 2. Have each group share its responses to the questions. Identify the similarities and differences existing between the views of the groups. Discuss how these perceptions reflect how we all see people differently.
Discuss what this implies about the perceptions of diverse workers.
Responses will vary according to the maturity and experience level of the students. Acting as a discussion facilitator, instructors should carefully guide the discussion and keep students focused on actual generations differences and issues as opposed to an evaluative discussion of the relative merits of each generational group.
Provide a two- to three-page write-up on an e-commerce business e.Step 2. Bilirubin is the normal major pigment found in bile. This way, you will insure that they are examining mergers within two different cultures. The immunologically mediated vasculitis syndromes in which this type of necrosis is seen are described in Chapter 6. However, forms of cell death with features of necrosis as well as of apoptosis are not uncommon after many injurious stimuli. Some then sell it to the employees and go on to another venture.
Questions about her loyalty to the organization and her long-term commitment to the company will place her on the defensive if she chooses to place family above the organization. On microscopic examination, small clear vacuoles may be seen within the cytoplasm; these represent distended and pinched-off segments of the ER.
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