Nican Mopohua La Narracion Mas Antigua De Las Apariciones Guadalupanas, Escrita En Nahuatl Y Traducida Al Espanol. Historia De Las Apariciones. For Spanish Masses (Misa en Espanol) see: Parroquia Santa. Cruz – Sat story of the apparitions, are described in the "Nican Mopohua,". Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, also known as Juan Diego (–), a native of Mexico, .. The Nican Mopohua was not reprinted or translated in full into Spanish until , Download via beijuaganette.gq .
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Nican mopohua · Las siguientes comparaciones con el español son aproximadas: 1. La S se pronuncia como en español: síjtli, tiankístli, másatl. later the European-bom Spanish, the Mexican-bom Spanish (los criollos) and the . Mexican native . Also available as a PDF download, October 3. Ibid. . Juan Diego as it appears in the Nican Mopohua and the Ocotlân legend. "Anti-. This pdf ebook is one of digital edition of Emergency Toxicology that can be search pensamiento nahuatl y mensaje cristiano en el nican mopohua biblioteka ukraintsia spanish edition,economics for healthcare managers second edition,the.
Tonantzin the beloved mother of the gods was celebrated around each winter solstice    which occurred on different dates, the winter solstice of occurred on December 12, according to the UNAM. It also contains the glyph of Antonio Valeriano ; and finally, the signature of Fray Bernardino de Sahagun that was authenticated by experts from the Banco de Mexico and Charles E.
A more complete early description of the apparition occurs in a page manuscript called the Nican mopohua , which was acquired by the New York Public Library in , and has been reliably dated in This document, written in Nahuatl, but in Latin script, tells the story of the apparitions and the supernatural origin of the image. It was probably composed by a native Aztec man, called Antonio Valeriano, who had been educated by Franciscans. The text of this document was later incorporated into a printed pamphlet which was widely circulated in The written record that does exist suggests the Catholic clergy in 16th century Mexico were deeply divided as to the orthodoxy of the native beliefs springing up around the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, with the Franciscan order who then had custody of the chapel at Tepeyac being strongly opposed to the outside groups, while the Dominicans supported it.
Days later, Fray Francisco de Bustamante, local head of the Franciscan order, delivered a sermon denouncing the native belief and believers. He expressed concern that the Catholic Archbishop was promoting a superstitious regard for an indigenous image: The devotion at the chapel At the inquiry, the Franciscans repeated their position that the image encouraged idolatry and superstition, and four witnesses testified to Bustamante's claim that the image was painted by an Indian, with one witness naming him "the Indian painter Marcos".
Cipac may well have had a hand in painting the Image, but only in painting the additions, such as the angel and moon at the Virgin's feet",  claims Prof. Jody Brant Smith referring to Philip Serna Callahan's examination of the tilma using infrared photography in The report of this inquiry is the most extensive documentation concerning the Virgin of Guadalupe from the 16th century, and significantly, it makes no mention of Juan Diego, the miraculous apparition, or any other element from the legend.
At this place [Tepeyac], [the Indians] had a temple dedicated to the mother of the gods, whom they called Tonantzin, which means Our Mother. There they performed many sacrifices in honor of this goddess And now that a church of Our Lady of Guadalupe is built there, they also called her Tonantzin, being motivated by those preachers who called Our Lady, the Mother of God, Tonantzin.
While it is not known for certain where the beginning of Tonantzin may have originated, but this we know for certain, that, from its first usage, the word refers to the ancient Tonantzin. And it was viewed as something that should be remedied, for their having [native] name of the Mother of God, Holy Mary, instead of Tonantzin, but Dios inantzin.
It appears to be a Satanic invention to cloak idolatry under the confusion of this name, Tonantzin. It also contains the following glosses: " Also in that year of appeared to Cuahtlatoatzin our beloved mother the Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico. This tract contains a section called the Nican mopohua "Here it is recounted" , which has been already touched on above.
It has been attributed since the late s to Antonio Valeriano ca. Most authorities agree on the dating and on Valeriano's authorship. The initiative to perform them was made by Francisco de Siles who proposed to ask the Church of Rome, a Mass itself with allusive text to the apparitions and stamping of the image, along with the divine office itself, and the precept of hearing a Catholic Mass on December 12, the last date of the apparitions of the Virgin to Juan Diego as the new date to commemorate the apparitions which until then was on September 8, the birth of the Virgin.
A new Catholic Basilica church was built to house the image. Completed in , it is now known as the Old Basilica. The crown ornament[ edit ] The image had originally featured a point crown on the Virgin's head, but this disappeared in — The change was first noticed on 23 February , when the image was removed to a nearby church.
This may have been motivated by the fact that the gold paint was flaking off of the crown, leaving it looking dilapidated.
But according to the historian David Brading , "the decision to remove rather than replace the crown was no doubt inspired by a desire to 'modernize' the image and reinforce its similarity to the nineteenth-century images of the Immaculate Conception which were exhibited at Lourdes and elsewhere What is rarely mentioned is that the frame which surrounded the canvas was adjusted to leave almost no space above the Virgin's head, thereby obscuring the effects of the erasure. During his leadership, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints declared Juan Diego "venerable" in , and the pope himself announced his beatification on 6 May , during a Mass at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City, declaring him "protector and advocate of the indigenous peoples," with December 9 established as his feast day.
At that time historians revived doubts as to the quality of the evidence regarding Juan Diego. The record of the ecclesiastical inquiry omitted him, and he was not mentioned in documentation before the midth century. In the year-old abbot of the Basilica of Guadalupe , Guillermo Schulenburg , was forced to resign following an interview published in the Catholic magazine Ixthus, in which he was quoted as saying that Juan Diego was "a symbol, not a reality", and that his canonization would be the "recognition of a cult.
It is not recognition of the physical, real existence of a person. He concluded that Juan Diego had not existed. Previously unknown, the document was dated The codex was the subject of an appendix to the Guadalupe encyclopedia, published in Paul's vision of Christ on the road to Damascus , drawn by St. Luke and signed by St. Oil on canvas by Isidro Escamilla. Brooklyn Museum. This is the greatest danger. All of this has great relevance for the preaching of the Gospel, if we are really concerned to make its beauty more clearly recognized and accepted by all.
Faith always remains something of a cross; it retains a certain obscurity which does not detract from the firmness of its assent. Some things are understood and appreciated only from the standpoint of this assent, which is a sister to love, beyond the range of clear reasons and arguments.
In her ongoing discernment, the Church can also come to see that certain customs not directly connected to the heart of the Gospel, even some which have deep historical roots, are no longer properly understood and appreciated.
Some of these customs may be beautiful, but they no longer serve as means of communicating the Gospel. We should not be afraid to re-examine them. It ought to be one of the criteria to be taken into account in considering a reform of the Church and her preaching which would enable it to reach everyone.
A small step, in the midst of great human limitations, can be more pleasing to God than a life which appears outwardly in order but moves through the day without confronting great difficulties.
Table of contents
We see then that the task of evangelization operates within the limits of language and of circumstances. It constantly seeks to communicate more effectively the truth of the Gospel in a specific context, without renouncing the truth, the goodness and the light which it can bring whenever perfection is not possible. It never closes itself off, never retreats into its own security, never opts for rigidity and defensiveness. It realizes that it has to grow in its own understanding of the Gospel and in discerning the paths of the Spirit, and so it always does what good it can, even if in the process, its shoes get soiled by the mud of the street.
A mother with an open heart Going out to others in order to reach the fringes of humanity does not mean rushing out aimlessly into the world. Often it is better simply to slow down, to put aside our eagerness in order to see and listen to others, to stop rushing from one thing to another and to remain with someone who has faltered along the way.
At times we have to be like the father of the prodigal son, who always keeps his door open so that when the son returns, he can readily pass through it.
The Church is called to be the house of the Father, with doors always wide open. One concrete sign of such openness is that our church doors should always be open, so that if someone, moved by the Spirit, comes there looking for God, he or she will not find a closed door.
There are other doors that should not be closed either. Everyone can share in some way in the life of the Church; everyone can be part of the community, nor should the doors of the sacraments be closed for simply any reason.
The Eucharist, although it is the fullness of sacramental life, is not a prize for the perfect but a powerful medicine and nourishment for the weak. Frequently, we act as arbiters of grace rather than its facilitators.
But the Church is not a tollhouse; it is the house of the Father, where there is a place for everyone, with all their problems. If the whole Church takes up this missionary impulse, she has to go forth to everyone without exception.
But to whom should she go first? There can be no room for doubt or for explanations which weaken so clear a message. We have to state, without mincing words, that there is an inseparable bond between our faith and the poor.
May we never abandon them. Let us go forth, then, let us go forth to offer everyone the life of Jesus Christ. Here I repeat for the entire Church what I have often said to the priests and laity of Buenos Aires: I prefer a Church which is bruised, hurting and dirty because it has been out on the streets, rather than a Church which is unhealthy from being confined and from clinging to its own security.
I do not want a Church concerned with being at the centre and which then ends by being caught up in a web of obsessions and procedures. If something should rightly disturb us and trouble our consciences, it is the fact that so many of our brothers and sisters are living without the strength, light and consolation born of friendship with Jesus Christ, without a community of faith to support them, without meaning and a goal in life.
Before taking up some basic questions related to the work of evangelization, it may be helpful to mention briefly the context in which we all have to live and work.
Nor would we be well served by a purely sociological analysis which would aim to embrace all of reality by employing an allegedly neutral and clinical method. What I would like to propose is something much more in the line of an evangelical discernment.
This involves not only recognizing and discerning spirits, but also — and this is decisive — choosing movements of the spirit of good and rejecting those of the spirit of evil. I take for granted the different analyses which other documents of the universal magisterium have offered, as well as those proposed by the regional and national conferences of bishops. In our time humanity is experiencing a turning-point in its history, as we can see from the advances being made in so many fields.
At the same time we have to remember that the majority of our contemporaries are barely living from day to day, with dire consequences. A number of diseases are spreading.
The hearts of many people are gripped by fear and desperation, even in the so-called rich countries. The joy of living frequently fades, lack of respect for others and violence are on the rise, and inequality is increasingly evident.
It is a struggle to live and, often, to live with precious little dignity. This epochal change has been set in motion by the enormous qualitative, quantitative, rapid and cumulative advances occuring in the sciences and in technology, and by their instant application in different areas of nature and of life. We are in an age of knowledge and information, which has led to new and often anonymous kinds of power.
No to an economy of exclusion Such an economy kills. How can it be that it is not a news item when an elderly homeless person dies of exposure, but it is news when the stock market loses two points? This is a case of exclusion. Can we continue to stand by when food is thrown away while people are starving?
Nican Mopohua: Here It Is Told
This is a case of inequality. Today everything comes under the laws of competition and the survival of the fittest, where the powerful feed upon the powerless. As a consequence, masses of people find themselves excluded and marginalized: without work, without possibilities, without any means of escape.
Human beings are themselves considered consumer goods to be used and then discarded. It is no longer simply about exploitation and oppression, but something new.
In this context, some people continue to defend trickle-down theories which assume that economic growth, encouraged by a free market, will inevitably succeed in bringing about greater justice and inclusiveness in the world.
Meanwhile, the excluded are still waiting. To sustain a lifestyle which excludes others, or to sustain enthusiasm for that selfish ideal, a globalization of indifference has developed. The culture of prosperity deadens us; we are thrilled if the market offers us something new to download.
In the meantime all those lives stunted for lack of opportunity seem a mere spectacle; they fail to move us. No to the new idolatry of money One cause of this situation is found in our relationship with money, since we calmly accept its dominion over ourselves and our societies.
The current financial crisis can make us overlook the fact that it originated in a profound human crisis: the denial of the primacy of the human person! We have created new idols. The worship of the ancient golden calf cf. Ex has returned in a new and ruthless guise in the idolatry of money and the dictatorship of an impersonal economy lacking a truly human purpose.
The worldwide crisis affecting finance and the economy lays bare their imbalances and, above all, their lack of real concern for human beings; man is reduced to one of his needs alone: consumption. While the earnings of a minority are growing exponentially, so too is the gap separating the majority from the prosperity enjoyed by those happy few. This imbalance is the result of ideologies which defend the absolute autonomy of the marketplace and financial speculation.
Consequently, they reject the right of states, charged with vigilance for the common good, to exercise any form of control. A new tyranny is thus born, invisible and often virtual, which unilaterally and relentlessly imposes its own laws and rules. Debt and the accumulation of interest also make it difficult for countries to realize the potential of their own economies and keep citizens from enjoying their real downloading power.
To all this we can add widespread corruption and self-serving tax evasion, which have taken on worldwide dimensions. The thirst for power and possessions knows no limits.
Postcolonial Indigenous Performances
In this system, which tends to devour everything which stands in the way of increased profits, whatever is fragile, like the environment, is defenseless before the interests of a deified market, which become the only rule.
No to a financial system which rules rather than serves Behind this attitude lurks a rejection of ethics and a rejection of God. Ethics has come to be viewed with a certain scornful derision. It is seen as counterproductive, too human, because it makes money and power relative. It is felt to be a threat, since it condemns the manipulation and debasement of the person.
In effect, ethics leads to a God who calls for a committed response which is outside the categories of the marketplace. When these latter are absolutized, God can only be seen as uncontrollable, unmanageable, even dangerous, since he calls human beings to their full realization and to freedom from all forms of enslavement.
Ethics — a non-ideological ethics — would make it possible to bring about balance and a more humane social order. A financial reform open to such ethical considerations would require a vigorous change of approach on the part of political leaders. I urge them to face this challenge with determination and an eye to the future, while not ignoring, of course, the specifics of each case.
When the decree of validity of the diocesan inquiry was given on January 9, permitting the cause to proceed , the candidate became officially "venerable". The documentation known as the Positio or "position paper" was published in , in which year all the bishops of Mexico petitioned the Holy See in support of the cause.
The process of beatification was completed in a ceremony presided over by Pope John Paul II at the Basilica of Guadalupe on May 6, when December 9 was declared as the feast day to be held annually in honor of the candidate for sainthood thereafter known as "Blessed Juan Diego Cuauthlatoatzin".
His mother Esperanza, who witnessed the fall, invoked Juan Diego to save her son who had sustained severe injuries to his spinal column, neck and cranium including intra-cranial haemorrhage. A week later he was sufficiently recovered to be discharged. Next, the unanimous report of five medical consultors as to the gravity of the injuries, the likelihood of their proving fatal, the impracticability of any medical intervention to save the patient, his complete and lasting recovery, and their inability to ascribe it to any known process of healing was received, and approved by the Congregation in February From there the case was passed to theological consultors who examined the nexus between i the fall and the injuries, ii the mother's faith in and invocation of Blessed Juan Diego, and iii the recovery, inexplicable in medical terms.
Their unanimous approval was signified in May Canonization[ edit ] As not infrequently happens, the process for canonization in this case was subject to delays and obstacles of various kinds.
In the instant case, certain interventions were initiated through unorthodox routes in early by a small group of ecclesiastics in Mexico then or formerly attached to the Basilica of Guadalupe pressing for a review of the sufficiency of the historical investigation.
The results of the review were presented to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints on October 28, which unanimously approved them. This served, however, only to intensify the protests of those who were attempting to delay or prevent the canonization, and the arguments over the quality of the scholarship displayed by the Encuentro were conducted first in private and then in public. The authenticity of the Codex Escalada and the dating of the Nican Mopohua to the 16th or 17th century have a material bearing on the duration of the oral stage.
Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources , with multiple points of view.
Coyote Musings on Genízaros, Hybridity, Education, and Slavery
May Learn how and when to remove this template message The debate over the historicity of St. Juan Diego and, by extension, of the apparitions and the miraculous image, begins with a contemporary to Juan Diego, named Antonio Valeriano. Valeriano was one of the best Indian scholars at the College of Santiago de Tlatelolco at the time that Juan Diego was alive; he was proficient in Spanish as well as Latin, and a native speaker of Nahuatl.
He knew Juan Diego personally  [ additional citation s needed ] and wrote his account of the apparitions on the basis of Juan Diego's testimony. There's no scholarly consensus as to who wrote these first pages. Burrus in the New York Public Library.
The silence of the sources is discussed in a separate section, below. The most prolific contemporary protagonist in the debate is Stafford Poole , a historian and Vincentian priest in the United States of America, who questioned the integrity and rigor of the historical investigation conducted by the Catholic Church in the interval between Juan Diego's beatification and his canonization.
For a brief period in mid a vigorous debate was ignited in Mexico when it emerged that Guillermo Schulenburg, who at that time was 80 years of age, did not believe that Juan Diego was a historical person or which follows from it that it is his mantle which is conserved and venerated at the Basilica.
That debate, however, was focused not so much on the weight to be accorded to the historical sources which attest to Juan Diego's existence as on the propriety of Abbot Schulenburg retaining an official position which — so it was objected — his advanced age, allegedly extravagant life-style and heterodox views disqualified him from holding.
Abbot Schulenburg's resignation announced on September 6, terminated that debate. The book is structured as a theological examination of the meaning of the apparitions to which is added a description of the tilma and of the sanctuary, accompanied by a description of seven miracles associated with the cult, the last of which related to a devastating inundation of Mexico City in the years — Although the work inspired panegyrical sermons preached in honour of the Virgin of Guadalupe between and , it was not popular and was rarely reprinted.
It was published in Nahuatl by the then vicar of the hermitage at Guadalupe, Luis Lasso de la Vega , in In four places in the introduction, he announced his authorship of all or part of the text, a claim long received with varying degrees of incredulity because of the text's consummate grasp of a form of classical Nahuatl dating from the midth century, the command of which Lasso de la Vega neither before nor after left any sign.I hope that all communities will devote the necessary effort to advancing along the path of a pastoral and missionary conversion which cannot leave things as they presently are.
To my ear, the best default "translation formula" for -tzin is probably "beloved," since that was formerly used in English for everyone from children to monarchs, although it is now quaintly dated in virtually all contexts. In their own way, all these instances of joy flow from the infinite love of God, who has revealed himself to us in Jesus Christ.
On December 26, a procession formed for taking the miraculous image back to Tepeyac where it was installed in a small hastily erected chapel. While the image garners much religious devotion and fervent Mexican patriotism, scholarly criticism on the image is also notable, considering the artistic disproportion of the image, the similarity of the image to Spanish pre-colonial artwork closely related to the Aztec colony at the time, the alleged relationship of Marcos Cipac de Aquino in either inventing or amending the tilma cloak, and the public declaration of the abbot of the Guadalupe shrine pertaining to the false existence of the Marian apparitions.
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