Lexikos 24 (AFRILEX-reeks/series ): Taasisi ya Taaluma za Kiswahili (TATAKI). Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu. Third Edition. , xvi + pp. KAMUSI YA KISWAHILI SANIFU IN TEST: A COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING DICTIONARIES. AND FOR RETRIEVING LEXICAL DATA. By: Oxford University Press ISBN: 9. Format: x mm. Extent: pages. Binding: Thread sewn. Year:
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TUKI, KAMUSI YA KISWAHILI-KIINGEREZA =: TUKI,. SWAHILI-ENGLISH DICTIONARY BY TUKI PDF. So, even you need responsibility from the firm, you might. Kamusi Ya Karne Ya 21 android app is a digital Swahili dictionary of Longhorn Publishers Limited. The product is suitable for use by primary school pupils. Kamusi Kuu Ya Kiswahili android application is a unique digital product of Longhorn Publishers Limited in partnership with BAKITA. The application has been.
Oral literary genres such as narratives, war songs, riddles, proverbs, praise and epic poetry and the theatre arts are replete with military terminology. Unlike other African languages in the East African region, Kiswahili has a long tradition of literary production. Poetry has been written in Kiswahili since at least the middle of the 17th century. Kiswahili poetry draws on Arabic, Persian, and Urdu literary sources.
Cultural values, indigenous military knowledge and military folklore were and still are important sources of military terminology. Individual communities had their craftsmen, blacksmiths, iron workers, technicians, medicine men, warriors and military strategists.
Their experience, knowledge, skills and professionalism was either reflected in their finished products — artillery or in their level linguistic elaboration. Their rich folklore was awash with jokes and farces utani , fairy tales simulizi , special war songs nyimbo za vita , self praise poems majigambo , dances ngoma and games michezo performed to instruct young men in the proper handling of silaha weapons and generally in the art and science of warfare.
As with most military rhymes see Where, ; Murray, ; Trnka, , these genres were characterised by a vulgar and poetic language in describing or discoursing about weapons such as knives, daggers, lances, swords, firearms, guns, pistols and revolvers. Indeed to date, most Kiswahili dialects are abounding in an extensive military terminology as part of their rich indigenous knowledge and cultural values spanning centuries.
Some of these terms have since been incorporated into the Standard Kiswahili lexicon.
The examples in 2 below illustrate this. Such terms are also embedded in popular Kiswahili oral genres such misemo sayings and methali proverbs as illustrated in 3 below: 3 Mkuki kwa nguruwe kwa binadamu u mchungu. A spear for a pig [is painful, but] is agony for a human being. Suluhu haiji ila kwa ncha ya upanga. Appeasement does not come save by the tip of the sword. Vita vya panzi ni furaha ya kunguru. A [war] fight between two grasshoppers is a joy to crows. Ala moja haikai panga mbili.
Msi chembe wala uta, si muwani. One who has neither an arrow nor a bow is not a warrior. Bila silaha usiingie vitani. Without weapons do not wage war. The stick [cane] in the hand is the one that kills the snake. Mshale usio nyoya hauendi mbali. An arrow without a feather will not go far. Undugu wa upanga si mzuri, afadhali undugu wa kisu. Fraternal relationships of the sword [machete] are inferior to those of the knife.
It is certain that most of the examples cited in 1 , 2 and 3 above are structurally indigenous Bantu Kiswahili words and not loans from other languages. From the foregoing, it is evident that in the past, Kiswahili to a certain extent, borrowed from neighbouring African languages.
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Nonetheless, prior to the arrival of the European colonialists and missionaries, the East African coast received a number of visitors who included navigators, explorers and traders. Their linguistic influence on Kiswahili is still evident as espoused by Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Turkish and the various Hindi languages.
In fact, almost every nation that came in contact with the East African coast has relics of her vocabulary in Kiswahili. In consequence, Kiswahili has a substantial quantity of vocabulary borrowed from the Arabic language. Arabic loans are clustered in various specialised fields of cultural terminology relating to jurisprudence, trade, religion, non-indigenous flora and maritime affairs.
Other borrowed terms relate to Arabic material cultural artefacts such as clothing, household utensils, and words indicating time of the day, weekdays and months. However, it is worth noting that contrary to what would naturally be expected, the contribution of Arabic to Kiswahili military terminology is very modest.
Perhaps this can be attributed to their peaceful coexistence with and more importantly the activities in which they were involved — trade, administration and the spread of Islamic religion and lifestyle. Moreover, the terms in 5 below directly relate to military activities or hardware.
It is worth noting that most of the concepts referred to by the terminology in 5 are modern and therefore not necessarily a reflection of the pre-colonial interaction between the Arabs and Waswahili. These terms are likely to have been borrowed in the recent times.
Following contacts with Persians, Kiswahili has Persian loans referring to navigation and sea trade in general. While such terms may not be considered military per se, with time they have come to be associated with military activities and operations.
They include the terms in 6 below: 6 karakana workshop , barangeni dhow of two colours mnara tower, lighthouse , roshani balcony or veranda nanga anchor , gurudumu wheel , serikali government and dari upper floor. The vocabulary in 7 above was a reflection of the Persian civilization of that time.
Trading activities pitying merchants of Indian decent and the Kiswahili speaking communities of East Africa have been going on for a very long time. Most Kiswahili words referring to retail and wholesale trade of household provisions are loans from Hindi languages.
Kamusi ya kiswahili sanifu
Hindi has also contributed words for various foodstuffs and implements as listed in 8 below: 8 pesa money , bima insurance , kodi tax , hundi cheque , laki one hundred thousand , korija score , cheti certificate , gari vehicle on wheels , gunia bag , bangili bangle and terafini turpentine.
It is unique in the sense that nearly all the Kiswahili loans from the Turkish language are either military terms or associated with military activities. It is worth noting that Turkish military terminology was also used by the Germans later on when they colonised Tanganyika.
This also accounts for the vast Turkish military terminology in Standard Kiswahili. Portugal had protracted contacts with the Coastal people of East Africa. As they journeyed by sea to India, Mombasa was used as their last port of call. On arrival in East Africa in , the Portuguese fought and destroyed the Arab supremacy along the Coast. Their fleets unleashed brutal and destructive attacks on various coastal cities.
Their intention was to introduce Christianity in place of Islam which was the religion of the coastal communities including the Waswahili. Their intent was met with hostility forcing them to build ngome Kiswahili for fortresses for security and protection. Etymologically speaking, the Kiswahili word gereza prison comes from the Portuguese igreja meaning church.
This semantic change can be attributed to hostility greeted on the Portuguese by the then Islamised coastal communities forcing them to build their churches within the precincts of the fortresses.
Portuguese stay and influence on Kiswahili can be traced back to the period between and CE when they dominated trading activities along the East African coast. The other terms 11 that Kiswahili retained from such interactions include: 11 beramu flag , bomba pipe , kasha chest, case , leso handkerchief and amari hawser, anchor rope. It is apparent that during the pre-colonial period, there were no formal institutions tasked with the planning, modernization and development of Kiswahili.
Whenever interlocutors encountered new objects or concepts, linguistic borrowing happened freely through daily contacts and interactions. With continued use, such terms became embedded in Kiswahili vocabulary.
Colonial Era Military Terminology Following the Anglo-German Agreement of , the parties agreed that their spheres of influence in East Africa should be divided by a line running from south of Mombasa, then north of Kilimanjaro to a point on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria. This began the extraordinary process by which the territories and subsequently the nations of East Africa were blocked out first upon the maps far away in Europe and only later upon the ground in East Africa itself.
The agreement put the area to the north most of modern Kenya under British influence and the area to the south Tanganyika; modern mainland Tanzania under German influence. The Anglo-German Agreement of placed additional territory most of modern Uganda under British influence. Some pockets of hostility and resistance were witnessed especially in kingdoms and communities that had warrior traditions and elaborate administrative units such as the Nandi of Kenya and the Hehe of Tanganyika.
These communities had an elaborate military technology with terminology to describe it.
In these communities, military strategy, organisation and command was conducted in the native languages. Kenya was proclaimed a British protectorate in and a crown colony in Most of what is now Uganda was formally proclaimed a British protectorate in , with additional areas being added to the protectorate in the following years.
Germans encouraged the use of Kiswahili in their colony whereas the Britons embraced local languages in order to divide and rule their subjects. Germans ruled mainland Tanzania although their stay was short lived.
Their rule in Tanganyika faced resistance from the diverse Southern communities culminating in the Maji maji war — under the spiritual leadership of Kinjeketile Ngwale. Their short colonial rule could be part of the reason as to why there are very few German loans in Kiswahili.
The other reason was their use of Kiswahili and Turkish military terms in their colony. However, very few words such as hela money , shule school and barawani bath are still in use. Their stay, contact and interaction with local communities impacted on their traditional social, cultural, political and religious institutions.
It was through this outfit that a section of East African troops participated in the Second World War. According to Mutonya and Parsons African soldiers and British officers serving in the Kenyan battalions of the KAR army in the s and s spoke KiKAR, a pidgin variety of Kiswahili characterized by a relatively simplified structure and a distinct lexical borrowing of military terminology.
KiKAR, also known as Kikeya, initially emerged as nonstandard Kiswahili, laden with substrate influences of African indigenous languages, spoken by soldiers recruited from diverse ethno-linguistic groups.
Moreover, since there were no formal Kiswahili language lessons in military training, very little was done to standardise the military terms that were used colloquially. The terms consisted of borrowed lexicon relating to command, equipment, and other foreign concepts pertaining to a military and European lifestyle as shown in the examples in 12 below cited in Mutonya and Parsons : 12 mabus detention , maktab office , kasu less time , sumu gas , mbash corporal , korokon guard room , bayoneti bayonet , pistola pistol , bathi bath , targeti target , scouti scout , kupiga bull to hit the target , kupiga ripoti to report , kukamua press trigger , kulanda to be equal to , hivihivi upside down , kulia to shout and manyatta village.
Most of these terms are either borrowed or translated from English. Perhaps the most notable contribution by the British colonial rule was the establishment of the Inter-Territorial Kiswahili Language Committee ILC in charged with the promotion, codification and standardization of Kiswahili.
Most of the military terminology in the earlier versions of the Standard English-Swahili Dictionary and the Standard Swahili-English Dictionary were products of this process. Other language developments by the committee were documented in the Bulletin of the Inter-Territorial Language Swahili Committee.
Africans who had participated in the world war as part of the KAR were enlightened, had knowledge of a common uniting language and were also trained in rudimentary western warfare. Resistance to colonial rule and the clamour for independence was therefore inevitable. Their efforts were augmented by upcoming African nationalist intellectuals, trade union movements, and the rise of political parties.
These efforts culminated in the demand for larger political freedoms and independence. Kiswahili played a vital role in uniting various communities. Militant combat in defence of justice was the clarion call on the continent.
Kiswahili was the language of choice for the new crop of African political leaders to push for African nationalism and the African right to self- determination and independence. By the early s Kiswahili had became symbolic of the African identity while assuming the all important political role of fostering national consciousness. At independence in the s, unlike most African countries south of the Sahara who declared their imperial language as the national language, most East African countries chose Kiswahili.
Tanganyika attained her independence in and in merged with Zanzibar, later taking the name Tanzania. Uganda got her Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www. Post-Colonial Era Military Terms On attainment of political freedom and independence, African states put in place mechanisms and institutions guarantee their national security and protect territorial sovereignty. To achieve this arduous task, they set up police and national defence forces. Owing to the low literacy levels of the citizens, recruitment to the forces was mainly based on personal interest and physical fitness.
Consequently, for East African countries the medium of military instruction and command in the disciplined forces was mainly a form pidgin Kiswahili consisting of lexicon borrowed from local vernacular languages and English. This partly explains why Kiswahili has remained the working language of the forces in the East African region.
For instance, in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, Kiswahili is the de facto language of command in the disciplined forces Mazrui and Mazrui 7. Most military operations and activities are either conducted in Kiswahili or some form of slang Kiswahili lased with military jargon as illustrated in However, contrary to the anticipated peace and stability most post-colonial era African countries have been visited by continued escalating internal conflicts, insecurity, coup de tats with the attendant loss of millions of lives, refugee crises, human misery, wanton destruction of property and proliferation of arms.
This has posed a myriad of challenges to the nation states. With the exception of Tanzania, this narrative describes most countries in the East African region. The situation in postcolonial Africa was further complicated by the Cold War. However, rivalry between them resulted in mutual suspicions, heightened tensions and a series of international incidents that brought the world to the brink of disaster.
It dominated international affairs for decades with crises as the Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam, Hungary and the Berlin Wall being associated with it. The most alarming issue associated with the Cold War was the arms race and the ensuing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
The build-up of arms was a key characteristic of the Cold War.
Military terms such as outlined in 17 characterised Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www. Considering the environment in which they were coined — short deadlines owing to the perishable nature of news - most of them are either adaptations from foreign languages, calques or both.
Moreover, a close scrutiny of the terms reveals the urgent need for harmonization and standardization in order to facilitate Kiswahili technical communication in the military sciences. Improvements in communication technologies and the speedy spread of information were critical to the collapse of the Iron Curtain that separated the two blocs. The more people knew about each other in the two blocs, the more difficult it became to sow seeds of discord.
Through modern communication, nations learnt that it was better to do business with each other than to hate each other.
More than ever before, citizens could easily learn what was happening in other countries, and understood that they did not have to live the way they were living. Suspicions eased and in consequence, the Iron Curtain fell. Military Terminology in the Age of Globalization Globalization is complex and multifaceted or differentiated social phenomenon. Subsequently, it renders itself to several interpretations depending on the context and on the person who is talking about.
It is neither a new phenomenon nor is it easy to define in military terms. It is the ongoing process of greater interdependence among countries and their citizens. It has political, technological and cultural, as well as economic dimensions Giddens, Steger defines globalization as a social process characterized by the existence of global economic, political, cultural, linguistic and environmental interconnections and flows that make the many of the currently existing borders and boundaries irrelevant.
This process has effects on human wellbeing including health and personal safety , on the environment, on culture including ideas, religion, and political systems , and on economic development and prosperity of societies across the world www. According to Guy Brainbant the process of globalisation not only includes opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of communication, internationalisation of financial markets, growing importance of Multinational Corporations MNCs , population migrations and more generally increased mobility of persons, goods, capital, data and ideas but also infections, diseases and pollution.
In nutshell, globalization is about the growing of worldwide interconnectedness, relations and networks between human communities, mutual exchange of technology and knowledge, an increase in the intensity of these, and a general acceleration of all these phenomena. Put differently, it is also characterised by faster and more reliable means of transportation and communication, which have facilitated greater inter-country movement of capital, human traffic and the exchange of larger volumes of information and goods.
Globalization has the capacity to create new vulnerabilities and tensions as well as ease or transform old ones. Correspondingly, the seemingly peaceful trends can cause violence with little or no strategic warning. The advances in communication, transportation, and information technologies that have accelerated the pace of globalization are also at the disposal of terrorists, money launderers and international cyber criminals.
They are reflected in all social domains ranging from the cultural through the economic, the political, the legal, the military and the environmental. The resultant challenges are numerous and immense.
It is in this regard that we now turn our attention to the relationship between globalization and language. Culture is basis for globalization while language is the centre of culture. It thus follows that globalization is best understood and determined in cultural terms. In the present day, due to scientific, technological, political and socio-economic developments, Kiswahili absorbs loan words from the globalised languages - especially English and in turn exerts an enormous influence on the vocabularies of other indigenous languages of East Africa.
Military technology evolves at supersonic speeds with superpowers striving to outwit each other. The preponderance of military or war crimes against humanity in the contemporary world is perturbing, to say the least. Internationally, acts of terror motivated by racial, ethnic, ideological and religious intolerance are on an upward trend. As a result, military terms such as listed in 19 below have found currency in both mainstream as well as social media across the globe.
As Alberts aptly observes, word-formation principles for most Bantu and indeed all African languages need to be established. Such a model or knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, patterns and principles is essential for the training of terminologists. It is with this in mind that we propose an analysis of emerging structural patterns and conceptual metaphors in neologies such as the Kiswahili military terms in In the next subsection we delve briefly into the general sources of military terminology.
Sources of Military Terminology From the foregoing it is evident that Kiswahili language has a growing military terminology.
The terminology so far discussed and documented in this paper are from sources within and outside the language. This means basic meaning of existing words such as mzinga, sungusungu, kifaru and ndege are expanded to elaborate novel military concepts or hardware.
External sources include calques and loans from other local or international languages. Linguists have always held divergent opinions on the most suitable source. Conservative language purists prefer internal sources while avant-garde linguists advocate for more liberal ways of language modernization that embrace sources within and outside the language. However, most of these terminologies are preserved by oral artists in their heads. Except for a few video and tape records, most of this folklore is neither written nor published.
In addition, most of these terms are available in the various dialects of Kiswahili. This calls for research, documentation, evaluation and standardization in order to make them part of Kiswahili technical vocabulary.
War and military experiences such as peace keeping missions have not only contributed to the coinage of new terms and the spread of old ones to new geographical frontiers. For instance, Kenya is presently hosting one of the largest refugee camps in Daadab and Kakuma. The camps hold refugees from nearly all the war torn countries of the region, some of whom had no prior knowledge or understanding of Kiswahili.
Part of the humanitarian assistance given to the refugees includes formal, non formal and informal teaching and learning of Kiswahili. Peacekeeping missions in Somali and the DRC are composed of troops of diverse nationalities. In addition, war activities attract a lot of media presence and coverage.
Some of these reports and documentaries are made in Kiswahili thus contributing the development and dissemination of new terminologies. For Kiswahili, classical poetry remains the most valuable source. This is partly because most of the classical poems not only cover a wide range of social issues but were also composed in different styles, registers and dialects of Kiswahili.
As illustrated earlier in the works of poets such as Muyaka bin Hajj and Fumo Liyongo, poets have contributed immensely to the documentation of terminology that is currently being tapped into for various technical disciplines such as military science, medicine, ICT, Law and Linguistics to name a few. In the same vein, poetic justice has enabled contemporary poets and popular musicians to coin neologies that have gained currency in various disciplines.
Groups such as methali, misemo and nahau have also been segregated and categorized separately to ensure maximum usage of the product.
The app is currently available in English and it was last updated on The program can be installed on Android. Kamusi Kuu ya Kiswahili version 1. Just click the green Download button above to start. Until now the program was downloaded times. We already checked that the download link to be safe, however for your own protection we recommend that you scan the downloaded software with your antivirus. Version History Here you can find the changelog of Kamusi Kuu ya Kiswahili since it was posted on our website on The latest version is 1.
See below the changes in each version:. Continue to Kamusi Kuu ya Kiswahili. Add a review Tell us your experience with Kamusi Kuu ya Kiswahili 1. The product is suitable for use by primary school pupils, secondary school students, university students, KiswahiliFraternal relationships of the sword [machete] are inferior to those of the knife.
Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu.
Kamusi Ya Kiswahili Sanifu
It is apparent that during the pre-colonial period, there were no formal institutions tasked with the planning, modernization and development of Kiswahili. Punde kitakuwa na msemo pamoja na msemo sawa kwa lugha ya Already, however, people in Malangali are providing vocabulary that gets submitted regularly to an international Swahili dic- tionary project, perhaps a prototype for exciting Internet contributions from here yet to come.
The app is also recommended for Swahili learners across the globe.
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