Prepare cash flow and profit & loss forecasts. • Get backers to invest. Plan. 25YEARS. THE LEADING. BUSINESS PLAN. BO. Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state .. Politics in Maharashtra, Problems and Prospects (PDF). Poona. of abour and time, which as the Author has stated has been a period of fifteen year-to-date. The Author's claim that this is perhaps the first book of its kind.
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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MAHARASHTRA. The early political history of Maharashtra is traced from the. 4th century B. C. There is Mora port on the. history of Maharashtra. Hala, the 7th ruler of the Satavahans compiled the famous Gatha 'Saptashati', a Maharastriprakrit collection of poems. The Satavahanas. PDF | On Jan 1, , Umesh Ashokrao Kadam and others published Maratha History: A Quest for history in India in general and of Maharashtra in particular.
Malik Ambar , the regent of the Nizamshahi dynasty of Ahmednagar from to  increased the strength and power of Murtaza Nizam Shah and raised a large army.
Malik Ambar was a proponent of guerilla warfare in the Deccan region. Malik Ambar assisted Mughal prince Khurram who later became emperor Shah Jahan in his struggle against his stepmother, Nur Jahan , who had ambitions of getting the Delhi throne for her son-in-law. The early period of Islamic rule saw atrocities such as imposition of Jaziya tax on non-Muslims, temple destruction and forcible conversions.
For most of this period Brahmins were in charge of accounts whereas revenue collection was in the hands of Marathas who had watans Hereditary rights of Patilki revenue collection at village level and Deshmukhi revenue collection over a larger area. A number of families such as Bhosale , Shirke , Ghorpade , Jadhav , More, Mahadik , and Ghatge and Nimbalkar loyally served different sultans at different periods in time.
All watandars considered their watan a source of economic power and pride and were reluctant to part with it. The Watandars were the first to oppose Shivaji because that hurt their economic interests.
The decline of Islamic rule in Deccan started when Shivaji founded the Maratha Empire by annexing a portion of the Bijapur Sultanate in Shivaji later led rebellions against the Mughal rule, thus becoming a symbol of Hindu resistance and self-rule. The Marathas dominated the political scene in India from the middle of the 17th century to the early 19th century as the Maratha Empire.
The term Maratha here is used in a comprehensive sense to include all Marathi-speaking people rather than the distinct community with the same name to which Shivaji Maharaj , the founder of the maratha empire belonged.
Chhatrapati Shivaji is considered the founder of the modern Marathi empire; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity [ citation needed ]. Shivaji Bhosale c.
History of Maharashtra
Shivaji Maharaj carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In , he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati Monarch of his realm at Raigad. Shivaji was an able warrior and established a government that included such modern concepts as a cabinet ashtapradhana mandala , foreign affairs dabir and internal intelligence.
Shivaji Maharaj established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast of Maharashtra. The death of Aurangzeb in , after an exhausting 27 years of war against the Marathas, led to the swift decline of the Mughal Empire. During much of this era, the Peshwas , belonging to the Bhat Deshmukh Marathi Chitpavan Brahmin family, controlled the Maratha army and later became the hereditary heads of the Maratha Empire from to These leaders also did not come from the traditional aristocratic families of Maharashtra.
The Marathas also had an elaborate land revenue system which was retained by the British East India company when they gained control of Maratha territory . Shivaji developed a potent Naval force during his rule. Later the navy under the leadership of Kanhoji Angre , in the early part of s dominated the territorial waters of the western coast of India from Bilimora , Gujarat  to Savantwadi. The Maratha Navy dominated until around the s, was in a state of decline by the s, and ceased to exist by The East India company controlled Mumbai since the 17th century as one of their main trading post.
The Company slowly expanded areas under its rule during the 18th century. The British ruled for more than a century and brought huge changes, in every aspect of life, for the people who resided in the Maharashtra region.
Areas that correspond to present day Maharashtra were under direct or indirect British rule, first under the East India Company and then under the British crown from The Maharashtra region during this era was divided in to Bombay presidency , Berar , Central provinces , Hyderabad state and various Princely states such as Kolhapur , Miraj etc.
The British colonial period saw standardization of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Carey also published the first dictionary of Marathi in devanagari script. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication.
He used Brahmins of Pune for this task and adopted the Sanskrit dominated dialect spoken by this caste in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi. People from Maharashtra played an important part in the social and religious reform movements as well as the nationalist movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Sarvajanik sabha took active part in relief efforts during the famine of The Sabha is considered the forerunner of the Indian National Congress established in Tilak was instrumental in using Shivaji and Ganesh worship in forging a collective Maharashtrian identity for Marathi people.
The non-Brahmin Hindu castes of Maharashtra started organizing at the beginning of the 20th century with the blessing of Chhatrapati Shahu of Kolhapur. The campaign took off in the early s under the leadership of Keshavrao Jedhe and Baburao Javalkar. Both belonged to the Non-Brahmin party. Capturing the Ganpati and Shivaji festivals from Brahmin domination were their early goals.
Ambedkar disagreed with mainstream leaders like Gandhi on issues including untouchability, government system and the partition of India. This did not prevent him from struggling for the rights of his brethren among the lower castes of the country. His leadership of dalit or Depressed Classes led to the Dalit movement that still endures. Ambedkar most importantly played the pivotal role in writing the constitution of India and hence he is considered as the father of the Indian Constitution.
The ultimatum in to the British to " Quit India " was given in Mumbai, and culminated in the transfer of power and the independence of India in Kher was the first Chief Minister of the tri-lingual Bombay Presidency in Although the British originally regarded India a place for supply of raw materials for the factories of England, by the end of 19th century modern manufacturing industry was developing in the city of Mumbai.
During the period of , a large number of Indians including people from Maharashtra were taken to the island of Mauritius as indentured labourers to work on sugarcane plantations. After India's independence, the Deccan States , including Kolhapur were integrated into Bombay State , which was created from the former Bombay Presidency in The southernmost part of Bombay State was ceded to Mysore.
From to the people of Maharashtra strongly protested against bilingual Bombay state and the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti , was formed to fight for a United Maharashtra for Marathi people.
Keshavrao Jedhe , S. On 1 May , following mass protests and deaths, the separate Marathi-speaking state was formed by dividing earlier Bombay State into the new states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Even today, the old town names of all these regions are Marathi names. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling.
You can assist by editing it. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Palaeolithic 2,,—, BC.
Madrasian Culture Soanian Culture. Neolithic 10,— BC. Chalcolithic — BC. Anarta tradition c. Bronze Age — BC. Iron Age — BC. Late medieval period — Early modern period — Colonial states — Periods of Sri Lanka. National histories. Regional histories.
Specialised histories. Main article: Maratha Empire. Further information: Company rule in India. British Raj and Bombay Presidency. See also: Akola Pact.
From the Stone Age to the 12th Century , p. A Study of Malwa , pp.
An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: A History. Atlantic Monthly Pr. The quoted pages can be read at Google Book Search.
History — Ancient period".
History of Maharashtra
Archived from the original on Retrieved Karnatak Pub. Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 3 January International Goan Convention.
Narasimha The Sevunas of Devagiri. Rao and Raghavan. An Indian Pilgrimage. SUNY Press. The History Files, United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 September Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. British Library. Cultural Politics in Modern India: Postcolonial prospects, colourful cosmopolitanism, global proximities.
Routledge India. Sultans of the South: Most Charmakar dis- approved of Ambedkar and Mahar for their rebellion Kondvilkar —55 as cited in Beltz The Charmakar leader P. Rajbhoj and Matang leader Sakat expressed their full confidence in Gandhi and the Congress and declared that Ambedkar had no authority to talk on their behalf as he was not their elected leader. Many Charmakar and Matang accuse Ambedkar and the Mahar of exclusiveness.
Matang— Mahar relations were also throughout marked by feelings of competi- tiveness, domination and subordination Kotani 60, 64 and Pillai- Vetschera 46 as cited in Beltz However, the issue of exclusion is complex.
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The competition between untouchable castes situ- ated close together in the social hierarchy generates an antipathy such that the preferred Matang and Charmakar strategy is to not ally with the Mahar because that would mean being dominated by them within the unitary category, whether SC, Dalit or Bauddha.
As less numerous and powerful groups, the Matang and Charmakar strategy is to precisely keep their distance from the Mahar and maintain their distinctive identity, one that is less stigmatised than before. Rajbhoj from to Family names associated with menial labour, names taken from the Hindu pantheon or those that were seen to be derogatory have been dropped.
Some sur- names such as Jatav, Mahar or Dalit assert the caste background of the person. Yet, these new names remain anchored in old associations. Some middle-class Dalit—Buddhists who wish to escape the burden of the past have sought to improve their status by adopting names that do not reveal their caste or traditional occupation.
Some change the suffixes to their names, or alter them entirely; thus Salve becomes Punekar, Tirmare be- comes Ray, Kamble becomes Karmarkar, Nagare becomes Nagarkar, and so on.
There was an interesting way in which the English language became handy for the community. Tambe or K. Kadam for instance Rege Pawar observed that her sister changed her family name from Kamble to Dabholkar, taking on the name of the village.
The everyday practices of some non-Buddhists add to the desire of some Bauddha to conceal even this identity which was meant to obliterate their stigmatised caste status. This greeting also signals a change from the traditional caste Hindu greeting Ram Ram or Namaskar. A Dalit has to decide what her or his public persona is going to be and has to live with that choice. VII Conclusion This article has sought to underline the many dilemmas that people within the Mahar—Dalit—Buddhist category have faced in their process of recog- nition and representation from pre-colonial to colonial to present times.
I have tried to show how they have deployed names and new religious identities in an attempt to produce themselves anew both socially and psychologically. Upward mobility and social movements have engineered a secondary socialisation, and have made Dalits active agents of social and self-transformation. The Dalit revolution was bolstered by the pol- itical and social changes around them and their efforts to create a just society are still in the making.
These efforts seek to dissolve traditional caste structures and norms and create an alternative community of the oppressed. However, the process of renaming is problematic for two reasons: the new Buddhist names are still perceived as markers of a his- torically stigmatised identity and do not allow for a forgetting of the past.
The terms Bauddha and Dalit, while aiming towards the inclusion of all SCs, re-inscribe the differences between the Mahar and other castes such as the Matang and the Charmakar who see their own distinctive identity being smothered and erased under these unitary labels.
The dilemma of inclusion and exclusion remains unresolved. For Dalits, identity is a contradictory and continuing problem that arises out of the constant dialectic between social structure and psycho- logical reality. At times, the very variety of names by which people of this category are known has become a historical and political burden and humiliation. Naming is thus an ongoing and continuing social and historical process, being born from a longing for social recognition.
Although this quest never quite achieves its elusive goals, it creates new realities that are in themselves important and meaningful. Acknowledgements I remain grateful to David Hardiman for his invaluable support and for discussing and commenting on the many versions of this article as it grew in analytical scope.
I want to thank Chithprabha Kudlu who has discussed some arguments presented here and also helped with editing. I am grateful to the two referees for their comments and to Amita Baviskar who with formidable patience discussed the social and political issues involved here and helped sharpen some critical arguments. Bombay: Thacker and Co. What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables. Lahore: Classic.
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Bombay: Government of Maharashtra. Bayly, Susan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Beltz, Johannes. Ambedkar and Buddhism in India, pp. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. New Delhi: Manohar. Chakravarti, Uma. New Delhi: Zubaan. Charsley, Simon. Untouchable: What is in a Name?
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The Laws of Manu. New Delhi: Penguin Books.
Du Bois, W. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover Publications. Enthoven, Reginald Edward. The Tribes and Castes of Bombay. Three Volumes. Delhi: Cosmo Publications. Fanon, Frantz. Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press.
Foucault, Michel. Technologies of the Self. In Luther H. Martin, Huck Gutman and Patrick H. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press. Galanter, Marc. Berkeley: University of California Press. Gokhale-Turner, Jayashree. Journal of Asian and African Studies. Journal of Asian Studies. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. Government of India. Census of India New Delhi: Government of India.
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Major Points about Maharashtra – Know Your States in PDF for SSC, Bank Exams
New Delhi: Sage Publications. Jaffrelot, Christophe. Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. London: C. Hurst and Co. Kamble, Baby. Jina Amucha Our Lives , 2nd ed. Pune: Mansanman Prakashan. Kardak, Bhimrao and Dadasaheb Pagare. Mumbai: Abhinav Prakashan. Kaviraj, Sudipta. Politics in India. About the author: Narendra Agrawal. Weekly General Knowledge Banking Capsule fo No more posts found! Not Now Yes, I'm Interested. Content is protected!! Loading Article s , Please Wait.
Tropical moist deciduous, tropical semi-evergreen, tropical dry deciduous, tropical thorny vegetation.Pillai-Vetschera, Traude. The oldest stone inscriptions in Marathi language can be seen at Shravana Belgola in modern-day Karnataka at the foot of the Bahubali Statue. Thanjavur Kingdom. Accessed on 12 February Such attempts at revising and re-visioning history challenge traditional Brahminical accounts of the caste system and have been a key part of lower caste strategies to establish new identities and status.
The Yadavas of Devagiri Dynasty was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra , north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh , from its capital at Devagiri present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra. They were joined by the Aryas, the Shakas and the Huns, who came from the North, as well as by foreigners, who arrived by sea.
The inner world of Dalit Buddhists was thus electrified and many Mahar Buddhists decisively snapped their links with Hinduism and fol- lowed Ambedkar.