Analysis Of Aoac International 18th Ed [PDF] [EPUB] Three Formats to Choose From AOAC offers the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC. international Aoac Official Methods Of beijuaganette.gq - Free Download Aoac ( association Of Offi. Cial Analytical Chemists) Intern Aoac. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 15th edition, Volume 1. K. Helrich Association of Official Analytical Chemists This 15th Edition contains.
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5 Attach a summary of the document incorporated by reference, including publication date and a copy of the cover page. See attached. 6 Document available for. INTERNATIONAL. The Scientific Association. Dedicated to Analytical Excellence. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL. 18th Edition, WASHINGTON, D.C.. Document Name: CFR Section(s). Standards Body: e. AOAC International. 9 CFR (b). AOAC: Official Methods of Analysis ( Volume.
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Official methods of analysis of AOAC International
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Official methods of analysis of AOAC International
At harvesting 8 months after planting , individual plants were uprooted using hoe. The numbers of rhizomes were counted and the fresh rhizome weights of turmeric were recorded using a top loading balance. Determination of Soil Properties Before experimentation in , soil samples 0—15 cm were collected from 10 randomly selected locations within the experimental site and mixed together to represent a composite soil sample.
The soil sample was later air-dried sieved using a 2 mm sieve and analyzed for particle size, organic C, pH, total N, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and pH water. At the end of each year, soil samples were also collected on each experimental plot and the chemical properties were analyzed. Particle size analysis was determined using the hydrometer method [ 13 ].
Soil organic carbon was determined by the procedure of Walkley and Black using the dichromate wet oxidation method [ 14 ]. Organic matter was calculated by multiplying C by 1. Total N was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl digestion method [ 15 ].
Available P was determined by Bray-1 extraction followed by molybdenum blue colorimetry [ 16 ]. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were extracted using 1 M ammonium acetate. Soil pH was determined using a soil-water medium at a ratio of with a digital electronic pH meter. The minerals in the turmeric rhizome were analyzed using the method described by Association of Official Analytical Chemist [ 18 ]. Vitamin A was determined spectrophotometrically by using the hexane method while Vitamin C was extracted from the turmeric with oxalic acid and then titrated using 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol [ 19 ].
Initial Soil Fertility and Chemical Analysis of the Soil Amendments Used for the Experiment Tables 1 and 2 , respectively, show the initial soil physical and chemical properties of the site used before experimentation and the chemical analysis of the PM, NPK, and MgO fertilizers used for the study. The poultry manure has both macro- and microelements.
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Table 1: Initial soil characteristics before experimentation. Table 2: Chemical analysis of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers used. Mg alone significantly increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations of the soil compared with the control whereas the values of pH and OM were not significantly different. Response of Growth and Yield of Turmeric Averaged over the two years, all amendments increased plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers, number of rhizomes, and turmeric rhizome yield compared with the control Table 4.
Similarly, Mg fertilizer alone increased the yield of turmeric by Except for K, PM alone increased mineral and vitamins contents of turmeric rhizome compared with NPK fertilizer alone. Except for Mg, the Mg fertilizer alone had the least effect on mineral and vitamin content of turmeric compared to all other soil amendments applied.
The increase in soil nutrient content with PM was adduced to the fact that PM is a natural and effective source of plant nutrients [ 21 , 22 ].
This was also consistent with the analysis recorded for PM in this experiment showing that it contains these nutrients. PM also has liming effect [ 23 ]. Mg fertilizer alone increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg contents of the soil significantly compared with the control. Soil analysis prior to the start of the experiment showed that the soil was deficient of Mg.
It has commonly been reported that sandy soils are frequently deficient of Mg [ 24 ], whereas fine textured soils clay generally contain adequate Mg as Mg is located in clay minerals and associated with cation exchange sites on clay surfaces. The increase in N concentration as a result of Mg fertilizer could be adduced to the fact that Mg seems to enhance N availability in soil and utilization by crops [ 25 — 27 ].
This was due to high quantities of these elements in NPK fertilizer compared with poultry manure. The ability of PM to increase pH could be due to the presence of base cations contained in the PM [ 28 ]. It had been reported that such cations are released upon microbial decarboxylation [ 29 ]. PM increased the growth and yield of turmeric in this study compared with the control.
This was due to high concentration of nutrients in PM and also due to its low C: N ratio 7. The increase in the growth and yield of turmeric as a result of the application of NPK fertilizer was due to the fact that the soil of the experimental site lacked essential nutrients responsible for growth and yield of turmeric [ 30 ].
These results were expected because Mg is known to be a constituent of chlorophyll accounting for about 2. It is also a cofactor, an enzyme activator in reaction associated with ATP formation, phosphorylation reaction, and subsequent transfer of phosphate [ 7 ]. Therefore, Mg is involved in simultaneously controlling processes responsible for photosynthesis, assimilate production, and partitioning among plant parts [ 31 ].
Mg supply was also reported to enhance N uptake by plants [ 32 , 33 ]. Mg application has also been reported to increase the translocation of assimilate from source to sink organs which increases root growth [ 5 , 34 ].
The increase in root growth as a result of Mg fertilizer application may aid in the absorption of N and other nutrients in the soil, thereby enhancing growth and rhizome yield of turmeric. NPK increased growth and rhizome yield of turmeric compared with PM. Turmeric is a high nutrient demanding crop; in this regard, [ 35 ] obtained good yields of turmeric rhizomes with the combination of , , and Also, [ 37 ] recommended high application rates of secondary nutrients, i.
Mg fertilizer applied alone or in combination with PM or NPK fertilizer increased mineral and vitamin contents of turmeric rhizomes.
This can be related to improved soil chemical properties associated with Mg treatments which, in turn, may have resulted in increased metabolic activity. Mg fertilizer also increased N absorbed by the turmeric plants and resulting in an increase in the number of leaves and photosynthetic activity and enhancing physiological processes leading to higher assimilate production which also resulted in an increase in mineral composition in the rhizomes.
This might be due to differences in the chemical composition of PM compared to NPK fertilizer and its positive effect on soil ecology and plant metabolism [ 38 ]. It therefore seems reasonable that the amount and type of mineral nutrients present in the soil will dictate the quantity and quality of nutrients absorbed by the plant.
For example, plants grown under organic agricultural conditions are reported to have higher micronutrient contents than conventionally grown plants [ 39 ]. Furthermore, because some chemical reactions in cells involve micronutrients, either directly or indirectly [ 40 ] could explain why PM exhibited higher vitamin C content compared with NPK fertilizer [ 38 ]. Conclusion This study shows that PM, NPK, and Mg fertilizers alone or combinations increased soil chemical properties, growth, yield, and mineral and vitamin contents of turmeric rhizomes compared with the control.
Data Availability The data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article.
Conflicts of Interest There are no conflicts of interest among authors. References M. Kamal and M. Balashanmugam and N.
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